Tag Archives: 19th-Century

Intemperate Temperance Cuts Down Cider

This is the next installment in our continuing series, “Did Prohibition Prohibit Cider?”

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Though Temperance originally advocated moderation, after the 1830s it fought for total abstinence (from alcohol consumption, that is). As Temperance changed, cider went from being a temperance drink, to a contributing cause, and finally to being the cause of alcohol abuse in America.

Temperance grew more potent because Americans at the beginning of the nineteenth century were a drunken, hot mess. Prior to the Revolutionary War Americans generally drank in a couple of ways – daily dram drinking (small tipples throughout the day, not with the intention to get drunk) and occasional social binging (essentially inebriation parties). The Revolution unleashed a degree of freedom completely unknown before, and with it came excessive drinking. Some people were anxious and uncertain about this new-found freedom and sought refuge in alcohol, while others saw drinking to intoxication (whether alone or not) as an expression of personal liberty. Whether it was from anxiety or freedom, studies suggest that more alcohol was consumed per person between 1790 and 1830 then at any other time in American history. (1)

As we saw last time, Cider was originally tolerated as a Temperance drink. Temperance advocates focused on hard liquor instead. Up through the 1820s if Temperancers viewed cider as a problem it was because it could be distilled into apple brandy. Some Temperance-supporting farmers worried that their apple orchards were the root of this evil. (2) For example, one “farmer” entitled his 1827 op-ed, “What Shall I Do With My Apples?” and continued

Is the question now rising in the mind of many a farmer, who is, or would appear, the friend of temperance. If he gathers his apples, of course he must make them into cider; and if he makes them into cider, of course he must sell it; and if he is to sell it, of course he must sell it to the distiller, or procure it distilled and then sell the brandy; and if the brandy is sold, it must be drank; and in this way every barrel will make and circulate liquid fire enough to ruin a soul, if not to destroy a life.

In 1829, a Connecticut farmer was quoted as saying he worried about having an orchard, “because the apples may be ground into cider, the cider may be distilled into spirituous liquor, and liquor, if drunken, will make a man drunk.” (3)

In the 1820s, Temperance organizations were established and spread across the nation. By the 1830s, these organizations hardened their view of softer alcoholic drinks. In 1869 one Temperance supporter explained this change, saying

In the infancy of the temperance reform, say from 1826 to 1832, a pledge, including spirituous or distilled liquors, was the only pledge in force, so that a man could be an active member of a temperance society and yet use and dispense in his household, wine, beer, or cider. A few years of experience convinced the earnest friends of temperance, that these drinks were constantly manufacturing new drunkards, and were also carrying back to their cups the most of those over whose reformation they had rejoiced. Hence the adoption of the total abstinence pledge, embracing the fermented as well as the distilled liquors.

sons of temperance detail

Artistic rendering of a Temperance pledge. Detail from the Sons of Temperance, c. 1845. Wikimedia.

From then on the Temperance view was that cider, not apple brandy, made drunkards. In 1836 the American Temperance Society said that, “Cider, strong beer, and wine are… the foundation of intemperate drinking.” Physician Samuel Bayard Woodward wrote in 1838 that, “Even cider, although in many instances it may be taken without danger, will induce, in many others, a love of something stronger, and, as the natural tendency is to desire an increase of strength, it will increase the danger of a relapse.” In 1839 the American Temperance Union wrote that, “Wine and cider are great and mighty hindrances to the overthrow of intemperance.”

The 1838 Temperance Map illustrated these views.

The map shows the Lands of Inebriation and Self-Denial. The map is an allegory of one’s descent into drunkenness and the (one and only?) route to salvation. The Ocean of Animal Appetites leads you to Inebriation. Inebriation consists of the territories of Indulgence, False Security, False Pleasure, False Comfort, False Hope, Total Indifference, and Ruin. The entry into the “Land of Inebriation” – a horrible place full of nasty pleasures and self-inflicted pains – was “Cider Inlet.”

Cider Inlet

Detail from upper left of the map.

From the 1830s onward, cider was portrayed as the “gateway” drink to harder stuff. During that time, Temperance worked to prevent alcohol addiction by working to prevent cider consumption.

Next Time: Did intemperate Temperance cut down orchards?

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1. See W.J. Rorabaugh, The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), Chapters 2 and 5.

2. It is often difficult to tell if a temperance article was authored by a farmer or by a Temperancer posing as a farmer to use “peer” pressure.

3. Weekly Eastern Argus, published as Eastern Argus. (Portland, Maine) • 07-14-1829, Page 3.

 

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Hard Facts on the Origins of “Hard” Cider

In the last two posts we looked at the etymology of the word cider and the various spellings of cider in English. This post will look at the meaning of the “hard” in hard cider.

In 1840 presidential candidate William Henry Harrison ran his “Log Cabin & Hard Cider” Campaign. Essentially he claimed he was raised in a humble a log cabin drinking common cider.

While his campaign claims weren’t accurate, the campaign was a success on several levels. Harrison became the 9th president and the term “hard cider” became more common in American English. It’s now so firmly embedded in our language that today it’s what we call almost all fermented apple juice. Americans are the only ones in the English-speaking world to use that term. Everywhere else it’s just called cider. Early Americans left off the hard too. From the earliest settlement through the nineteenth century it was simply called cider. So when did it get to be “hard”?

As it turns out, “hard cider” isn’t originally American. It appears to be British. The earliest reference to “hard cider” found so far is in the 1690 A New Dictionary of the Terms Ancient and Modern of the Canting Crew dictionary, printed in London. It’s in the definition for Freeze, which is

1690 1
1690 2

Freeze is cheap cider used to adulterate good wine. This definition is repeated verbatim in British dictionaries throughout the eighteenth century, including

A New Canting Dictionary, 1725

The New Universal English Dictionary, 1761

The New Universal Etymological English Dictionary, 1775

A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, 1785

Blackguardiana; or, a Dictionary of Rogues, Bawds, &c., 1795

The definition for freeze, being “thin, small, hard” is curious. Since cider at that time always meant alcoholic apple juice, those words seem to be describing the character of cider. In looking up other early definitions for “hard” one finds the usual definition of firmness. Some dictionaries, though, defined it as rough. A few even defined it as a rough characteristic of drinks.

A New English Dictionary, John Kersey’s 1739 dictionary, defines hard as

1739 A New English Dictionary

 

Samuel Johnson’s 1755 A Dictionary of the English Language has several definitions for hard, including

1755 1
1755 2

 

In 1789 Thomas Sheridan in his A Complete Dictionary of the English Language defined hard as

1789 sheridan

 

Noah Webster’s 1828 An American Dictionary of the English Language not only defines hard as a character of liquors, he uses cider in his example sentence:

1828 Webster

 

According to these definitions the “hard” in hard cider has nothing to do with alcohol content, but with taste.

Hard cider doesn’t appear in American records until 1786, when The New-York Packet included it in a cure for dropsy (an archaic term for edema).(1)

New-York Packet, published as Loudon's New-York Packet (New York, New York) • 02-02-1786 • Page [2]
New-York Packet, published as Loudon’s New-York Packet (New York, New York) 02-02-1786 Page [2]

After the Packet published it in 1786, “hard cider” only occasionally appeared in print over the next forty years. When it did, the story suggests the cider is low-quality.(2) For example, in 1790, when a resident of Charleston, South Carolina realized the state capital would remain in Columbia, he worried that Charlestonians would be reduced to a less civilized lifestyle, including having only hard cider to drink.

1790 Hard Cyder
Daily Advertiser, published as The Daily Advertiser (New York, New York) 06-11-1790 Page [2]

The overall tone of John Woodger’s 1804 obituary suggests he preferred an exceedingly unrefined lifestyle, appropriately choosing hard cider over everything else.

1804 Hard Cyder
Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser, published as Poulson’s American Daily Advertiser. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 12-27-1804 Page [3]

Why use good cider for vinegar making when hard “cyder” would be less expensive, as Jona Rogers advertised in 1826.

Baltimore Patriot, published as BALTIMORE PATRIOT & MERCANTILE ADVERTISER. (Baltimore, Maryland) • 06-09-1826 • Page [3]
Baltimore Patriot, published as BALTIMORE PATRIOT & MERCANTILE ADVERTISER. (Baltimore, Maryland) 06-09-1826 Page [3]

This fictional 1830 humorous piece calls hard cider “dreadful.”

Haverhill Gazette, published as Essex Gazette (Haverhill, Massachusetts) • 04-10-1830 • Page [3]
Haverhill Gazette, published as Essex Gazette (Haverhill, Massachusetts) 04-10-1830 Page [3]

One ne’er-do-well trader included hard cider among his limited and poor stock.

North American, published as The North American (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) • 04-17-1839 • Page [1]
North American, published as The North American (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) 04-17-1839 Page [1]

 

This understanding of “hard” as rough, sour, or acidic adds a new layer to understanding Harrison’s campaign. He didn’t simply claim to drink cider. He claimed to drink the cheapest, harshest cider, just like the people did who he appealed to.(3)

New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette (Concord, New Hampshire) • 02-10-1840 • Page [2]

New Hampshire Patriot and State Gazette (Concord, New Hampshire) 02-10-1840 Page [2]

None of this is to say that Americans only called it hard cider after 1840. Cider continued to be used well into the nineteenth century as the name of fermented apple juice. What remains unclear is when the word cider came to mean fresh juice and when hard cider exclusively meant fermented juice. That search continues.

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  1. As the image shows, they reprinted this from the Albany Gazette. A copy of that has yet to be located. However, it began publication in 1784, not long before the Packet reprinted the cure.
  2. Following their original publication, the dropsy cure and the Mr. Longswallow piece were repeatedly reprinted in various American papers over several years. I chose not to include each reference to them here.
  3. Like hard, the word cabin had a specific meaning too. It meant a one-room structure.

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Upcoming Talk on Cider & Prohibition

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Click here for more information.

On Saturday, October 7th at 1 pm I’m presenting an original talk, “Did Prohibition Prohibit Cider?” at the Sigal Museum in Easton, PA in connection with their new exhibition, The Cat’s Meow: Lehigh Valley in the Age of Art Deco & the Roaring Twenties.

Prohibition is often blamed for abruptly ending American cider, yet it didn’t change our taste for beer, wine, or spirits. Come find out how Prohibition did and did not change cidermaking in Pennsylvania.

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Cider Helps Sway the Election

The candidate, himself a wealthy man, convinced the country that his opponent was a snob who could never understand real Americans. As proof the candidate said his opponent didn’t like hard cider.

It was the election of 1840, and William Henry Harrison was running his
Log Cabin & Hard Cider” campaign against incumbent Martin Van Buren. As you might imagine, Harrison’s campaign created a plethora of log house- and hard cider-related art.

A favorite among them is this not-so-subtle mechanical card

van-buren

Left:
A BEAUTIFUL GOBLET OF
WHITE HOUSE CHAMPAGNE

pull the tab at the bottom and it changes the image to

Right:
AN UGLY MUG OF
LOG-CABIN HARD CIDER
Special Collections Research Center
Syracuse University Library

His campaign worked and Harrison became our 9th president.

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Nineteenth Century Grafting Recreated

As it’s spring, the season of grafting, here’s a little living history from the folks up at Genesee Country Village & Museum.

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Irish Apples & Cider

Happy St. Patrick’s Day!

In celebration of the day check out this overview of Irish cider culture then & now:

A Brief History of Apples and Cidermaking in Ireland

https://i2.wp.com/newsdron.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Picture-Of-St-Patrick6.jpg

He’ll have one more.

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Cyder Season 2015: 21.5 Gallons Going and New Tools For Old Cydermaking

Welcome to Pommel’s fourth cyder season! Last week I started several cyders, some old favorites and some new experiments. They are, from left to right:

2015 Class Picture

  • 6.5 gallons of the 1723 honey wheat cyser (so far this one remains a fan favorite) – Potential ABV 11.5%
  • 1 gallon unchaptalized raw juice (cause I hate to waste fermentable juice) – Potential ABV 7%
  • 6 gallons of the 1674 Penn spiced cyder – Potential ABV 8%
  • 5 gallons for experimenting with fortifying and royaling – Potential ABV 7%
  • 3 gallons raw Golden Russet (another house favorite) – Potential ABV 8.5%

All of them are fermenting with natural yeast only.

This season I’ve started using brew buckets. They’re certainly not historical, but they are more cost-effective than oak barrels. They allowed me to double production without doubling the expense. The juice will stay in the buckets for a few weeks before being transferred to glass carboys to condition for a few months.

Useful as the buckets are, I wish they

  • Had a clear side or top to show fermentation
  • Had their upper gallons marked (these are all 6.5 gallon buckets, but the printed markings only go to 5)
  • Were wooden barrels
Brewbucket Gallons

At least one of those wishes I could immediately grant myself. Seems a 6.5-gallon bucket will hold 7, so long as I don’t need too much head space.

 

I also purchased a digital scale which should cut down on the various mathematical conversions I’ve been doing. Though a stillard and scale would be more accurate (historically speaking).

stillards-scale-001

The stillard (aka stilliard or steelyard) is the long object on the upper left and the scale is on the right.

 

 

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Applejack & The Raven Black

Still not sure what applejack (distilled hard cider) and chicken feed have in common, but I’m assuming the company supported Temperance, which also might explain why it ends so unhappily.

fritz spindle shanks cards151. Fritz Spindle-Shanks The Raven Black, Takes kindly to the applejack.
2. Its taste is sweet, he thrusts his beak, into the liquor stiff and sleek.

fritz spindle shanks cards143. He takes a nip and with delight, it gurgles slowly out of sight.
4. Immerse his beak again goes back, into the glass of applejack.

fritz spindle shanks cards135. The glass is raised, his spirit pains, to think that nothing more remains.
6. Whew! Whew! He feels so very queer, with silly look and slinking leer.

fritz spindle shanks cards127. And screams with wild delight possessed, thus on three toes he blandly rests.
8. But wantonness too often tends, to show the moral of such ends.

fritz spindle shanks cards119. Thus roughly yanks with vulgar haste, these articles of female taste.
10. He takes a flop and spindle shanks, will ne’re again renew his pranks.

Fritz Spindle-Shanks, the Raven Black, on trade cards for Peel’s Improved Poultry Food (New York: New York News Company, 1882]). Set of 10 trade cards. Graphic Arts Collection. Gift of Allen Scheuch, Class of 1976.

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Cidering is Fraught With Peril (Really)

Cidering can be dangerous, and not just because of the effects of alcohol. It has always involved large machines which are designed to shred and press flesh. That’s fine when it’s an apple being spindled and mutilated, but it can have painful, even fatal, consequences when it’s a person.

One such accident occurred outside of York, PA in 1800 and was later recorded by a local artist. According to Lewis Miller, David Miller (no relation, we assume) was busy grinding apples when his hand was caught between the stones. Lewis’s rendering of this incident is presented below.

October 13th 1800. David Miller loseing his hand in the Apple Mill dreadful Ground up. it was at George Spangler’s farm one quarter of a mile from York [PA]. he died on the 21nd day of October in his 23. year his brother Joseph Miller was present at the time and Stop, the horse to go forward. as Soon as he discovered his brothers hand in the mill. A young woman throw an apple at him, he turned round to See, who throw, and his hand caught….

Between the machines and the stinging bugs, cidering can be perilous.

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Some New Cider-Sipping Reading

1664.

1664.

Just a quick post to let you know I added half a dozen new titles to the Historical Cidering page, including John Evelyn’s Pomona, one of the earliest English works on cider.

Enjoy.

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