Preserving Southern Heritage Apples

Museums, collections of items from the past, come in many forms. So it’s conceivable to say orchards of historic fruit are living history museums, keeping the past alive and growing in the modern world.

Lee Calhoun is among those who are collecting, preserving, and sharing Southern heritage apples and their relationship to Southern culture. Check out his story.

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Does this make him an apple curator? Curator of apples? Pomological preservationist?

 

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Irish Cider As I Found It: Longueville House Cider & Brandy

Simple is good.

                                               Jim Henson 1

If you’ve read this blog before, you know I prefer simple. Simple can produce some wonderful things. But simple is hard. Especially for me, because I often complicate things. Usually it’s out of enthusiasm. I want to do everything, simultaneously and immediately. It’s worse if you add the probability that I’ll only have the opportunity to do something once. Our Irish cider tour was a perfect example of this imperfect side of me – I wanted to try every cider at every cidery.

As usual, time and space got in my way. Such obsessive touring was impossible. It didn’t help that many of the places we found didn’t seem to have tasting rooms. A few even actively discouraged visitors. At one point I was despairing of visiting any cidery, when J. told me she reached out to the staff at Longueville House and had scheduled a visit for us.

Longueville House, in Mallow, County Cork, produces a range of ciders and cider products.

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When I first saw Longueville’s website, I thought yes, let’s visit. Then, in looking at the estate, I wasn’t sure what we would find. What I found online felt contradictory. Their ciders had near-universal acclaim, but based on their website they’re also a rather posh hotel and restaurant. Was this going to be the triumph of money over process? Did they basically buy their way into making good cider? We would find out soon enough.

In the meantime, and despite the fact that we weren’t visiting until mid-week, I avoided trying any of their ciders because I wanted to hear their story first.2

Their story was told to us by Rubert Atkinson, sales and marketing manager. Rubert, a tall man who reminded me of Chris O’Dowd, was a generous guide. We met and dove right into the history of the place, quickly going from the 17th century up through the late 20th century.

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He told us this tale while we stood in front of the house looking across the Blackwater Valley spread out in front of us.

Originally owned by the O’Callaghan Family, the property was forfeit to Cromwell sometime after 1649. Ultimately, the Longfield Family acquired it. They built the core of the present house in 1720. After Richard Longfield was made Baron Longuefield in 1795, he expanded the house.

In 1938, William O’Callaghan, a descendant of the seventeenth-century owners, bought the estate back. It was William’s son, Michael, who created Longueville’s restaurant, orchards, and cider.

After Rubert finished his history we followed him into a self-contained world of gardens, orchards, and barns, all supplying the restaurant and hotel.

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Longueville is as self-contained as they possibly can be.

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The apple trees in the walled garden are for eating.

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So are the pigs in the piggery.

As we left the garden and turned right, we headed straight into the orchards.

Jane and Rubert in Orchard

Rubert and J. talking orchards on a beautiful Irish day.

Of the estate’s 500 acres, 30 are orchards. Those orchards consist solely of two apple varieties, Dabinett and Michelin. Most of the orchards were planted by Michael in 1985. He researched cider apples and found those two made the best cider for his taste.

The estate has continued his cidermaking almost unchanged. Apart from the choosing two apples to focus on, they also have a very simple cidermaking operation. Once apples are harvested (they let them fall naturally and then pile them up and collect them from there), they mill and press onsite.

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The cider shed had the belt mill/press (left) under cover, with two large fermenting tanks just outside.

They run the press for 24-hours straight through cidermaking season. As the pomace is pressed and ejected, it is shoveled out of a little window into piles outside the cider house.

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I love that the open-sided cider house’s pomace window has a small latched shutter. You know, to keep the bugs out.

Exterior Pomace Door

The small pomace window is in the center of the cider shed’s cinder wall.

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They’ve used the same shovel for a while now.

The juice is piped from the press to two collecting tanks just outside the cider shed. They wild yeast ferment everything to 5.5%. This base cider is used for everything they make.

And they only make two ciders, entirely from their own products. Their House Cider is made by backsweetening with their unfermented juice, to bring the ABV down to 5%. Their Mor cider is aged for over a year in their fresh apple brandy barrels, bringing the ABV up to 8%.

Once everything has conditioned for a year, it’s sent off-site to be lightly carbonated, bottled, and labeled.

The fermented juice that does not became one of these ciders is distilled into apple brandy. Though Ireland has a cider tradition, apple brandy had never been legally made there. That is, until 1985 when O’Callaghan obtained the first new distillery license in Ireland since the the 1770s and began making apple brandy.

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They double distill everything using the same equipment they’ve had almost from the beginning.

Longueville achieves what I value in cidermaking. Since they grow, ferment, and distill everything themselves on the estate, their cider captures their terroir. And their cidermaking process is uncomplicated and thoughtful. They work with what it gives them, instead of trying to redirect it into being something else.

Lastly, I appreciate that their cider is directly tied to their past. What they do and how they do is informed by what came before. Their cider is simply living history.

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1. Reflecting on Henson’s words, Jerry Juhl said, “We always used to kid Jim that after telling everybody “simple is good,” he would turn around and try to produce the most complicated work in the world and just about wipe out all of us – him most of all – in the process.”

2. I’m not sure why. I know that cider is good or bad independent of its story, but there was something about not trying it beforehand that appealed to me. Perhaps it was offering myself a surprise, since no Irish cider had to that point in the trip. Or maybe I was being lazy.

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Upcoming Presentation & Tasting at Lemon Hill for Philly Cider Week

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On November 3rd I’ll be presenting “Did Prohibition Prohibit Cider?” for Philly Cider Week at Lemon Hill Mansion in Fairmount Park. Along with the talk, Dressler Estate will be offering tastings of their ciders.

Hope you can make it to get answers to all your cider and Prohibition questions (and you should question everything) and sample some wonderful ciders!

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Upcoming Living History Demo at First State Heritage Park

On November 2nd I’ll be at First State Heritage Park’s 18th-century Harvest Festival presenting my cider living history demo.

Hope to see you there!

woman in 1700s clothese walking a tightrope and holding an unbrella There’s all manner of 18th-century fun. I wonder if I can break into her act again?

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Upcoming Presentation at Fairmount Park CiderFest

This Saturday I’ll be at Lemon Hill Mansion talking about 18th-century cider as part of Fairmount Park’s annual CiderFest.

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If you upgrade to a VIP pass, you’ll also get seating for a talk and taste – I’ll be talking about Pennsylvania cider history, followed by a tasting of Dressler Estate ciders.

If you’re in the Philadelphia area, hope you can make it out. Along with a little cider history, there’s going to be eight Pennsylvania cideries, food trucks, and live music. Hope to see you Saturday!

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The Oldest Bottle of Cider Is No More

You hear a lot about people finding historic vintages of wine, and lots of people claim to have the oldest bottle of wine or wine variety. But where is the oldest bottle of cider?

Evidently three meters below ground, in the rubble of a bombed out house.

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Source: The Sun

One bottle of still-drinkable cider from World War II was recently found in Bath, England. Chris Kilminster was able to get the recovered bottle of still-fizzy cider from the site of his family’s home which was destroyed in 1942. He said he, “must have the oldest bottle of cider in the world….”

He’s probably right about that. When was the last time you heard about an ancient bottle of cider being found? This is probably the first time.

That’s because cider was meant to be drunk, not cellared. Even Kilminster opened his bottle as soon as he could.

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Irish Cider as I Found It

When I think of Ireland, I think of cider. In 1998 I spent a week traveling through the country. Everyday at lunch I had a Guinness and a cider, usually a Bulmer’s (known in America as Magner’s). In my memory, those ciders were wonderful. The highlight for me was stumbling upon the Bulmer’s factory in Clonmel. The town smelled so deliciously of fermenting cider. Back then, being 23 and in a foreign country, Bulmer’s was an elixir. I couldn’t get enough.

Twenty-one years later, I was back in Ireland. This past spring J. and I took our belated honeymoon and spent eight days traveling around.

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There are now fewer fairies for it.

In the intervening time my cider tastes had changed. It’s move away from sweet and bubbly to dry, still, and wild fermented.

As we planned the trip, I looked into the cider possibilities. I had every reason to think Irish cider, like my taste, had matured over the years. First, there’s Cider Ireland. While it only has 13 members, they appeared to be what I was looking for, local, natural, and independent. Happily most of them were along the route we were planning to take in the second half of the trip. Also, in 2016 the Washington Post ran a story about cider in Ireland. The author gives you the impression that cider is everywhere, officially or not. The article even says that if you don’t see cider on the menu, it’s under the counter waiting for the right person to ask for it.

I also reached out to the members of the Promotion of Real Cider and Perry Facebook group. Most of their members are British and Irish, so I reckoned they would have some suggestions. The first response was disheartening – there was no good cider to be found. Fortunately, others recommended some interesting places.

Armed with websites and hope, I was excited for our Irish cider experience. Admittedly, I didn’t want to turn the whole trip into a cider tour.

Actually, I would have, but I wasn’t going alone.

 

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Orchard Thieves was also the most common cider trash.

What my research said was true. You could get cider just about everywhere. The most common was Orchard Thieves, the Irish Angry Orchard. It was in almost every bar, pub, cafe, and restaurant we went to.

 

A few others that were easily found in restaurants and off-licenses (bottle shops) included Cronin’s “Quality” Cider (so sweet that it pushes the term “quality”), McIver’s Medium Dry (it actually was), Stonewell Dry (not at all), and Dan Kelly’s (funky and quite drinkable).

 

Irish Ciders

Kelly’s was a happy find. Wild yeast fermented, funky, with a little sweetness. There’s nothing in America like Kelly’s, funky and nationally available.

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We did find a Herefordshire (English) scrumpy in Castlebar. Unhappily it was on display, not on the menu.

Despite the research, what I found was a cider culture much like America’s – dominated by a few producers, mostly industrial, making sticky-sweet and carbonated beverages. Their craft counterparts were still small and developing. But there was one standout, a cidery that’s the Flag Hill Farm of Ireland. But more on them next time.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Saturday Presentation at Pottsgrove Manor

This coming Saturday, May 4th, I’ll be at Pottsgrove Manor talking about cider history. Hope to see you there.

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Did Temperance Cut Down Orchards?

This is the next installment in our continuing series, “Did Prohibition Prohibit Cider?”

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In 1834 a “traveller” from the Earth to the moon

one day came across a [moon] man busily employed in cutting down a fine orchard of apple-trees, and was inclined to consider him mad, until on inquiring he found him only a zealous member of a temperance society.

Like the “traveller,” when we hear stories of Temperance supporters destroying orchards we also think they were mad. And we hear them a lot. Such stories are common today, having become part of the lore of American cider.

Lore or not, orchards were certainly concerning to Temperancers. If cider was the cause of alcohol abuse, orchards were the cause of cider. One Temperance writer believed that, “an old orchard and distillery, are almost invariably indices of widows, orphans, poverty, and drunkenness.”(1) Another said,  “I thought of those total abstinence men, who were so zealous in the cause of temperance, they cut down their orchards, that they might be a stumbling block to their [imbibing] neighbors. (2)”

Statements like these make it easy for us to believe proponents of Temperance wantonly destroyed orchards in their pursuit of a teetotaling America.(3) Since the late 1800s these stories have been offered as easy explanations of what happened to cider and cider apples in America.

Straightforward though they are, these explanations are challenging to believe. A closer look reveals that things were not that simple and that later generations misunderstood who was uprooting cider orchards.

For example, despite the stories, it’s hard to find evidence of Temperance zealots chopping down someone else’s orchard. Such vandalism has always been illegal and anyone who did so would be liable to prosecution. In looking through early American newspapers, the only account of an orchard being chopped down in the night found so far is this:

cutting orchards press (philadelphia, pennsylvania), january 14, 1867, 6

This appears to be more vendetta than anti-vice. The Press (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), January 14, 1867, 6.

Though it’s difficult to find orchards being destroyed by others, it’s much easier to find stories of people talking about it. They seem to begin just as Temperance was moving towards total abstinence. But, instead of Temperance raiding parties, it seems farmers were themselves the ones getting rid of their orchards. As early as 1827 the anonymous “farmer” wrote in “What Shall I Do With My Apples?” that

If no other market can be found for our cider, but at the still, let it be a matter of conscientious inquiry with every farmer, whether it is right for him to make more cider than he wants for reasonable use in his own family. If not let him select those trees which yield him choice fruit, and so many that he may calculate in ordinary years to have a good supply of apples and cider, and then consign the rest of his trees to the wood house, and the land they occupy to a more profitable crop. I would not have a scarcity of the native and natural beverage of our country. But for all the trees which yield liquor for the still, I say, and every friend of humanity says, and let every thrifty farmer say BURN THEM.

Two years later a Connecticut farmer was reported to have actually had (and ridiculed for having) his orchards cut down for fear his apples should be turned into apple brandy.

temperance weekly eastern argus, published as eastern argus. (portland, maine) • 07-14-1829 • page [3]

Evening Eastern Argus (Portland, Maine), July 14, 1829, 3.

As news of this spread, so did the comments on how absurd it was to sacrifice an orchard to prevent cider.

temperance republican star, published as republican star and general advertiser (easton, maryland) • 07-21-1829 • page [3]

Republican Star and General Advertiser (Easton, Maryland), July 21, 1829, 3.

Stories of farmers axing their own trees were repeated throughout the nineteenth century. For example, in 1862, Henry David Thoreau, “heard of an orchard in a distant town, on the side of a hill, where the apples rolled down and lay four feet deep against a wall on the lower side, and this the owner cut down for fear they should be made into cider.” As the century progressed, the story changed in the retelling. People left out that it was farmers who were destroying their own orchards. In 1897 Alice Morse Earle, an historian of early American domestic life, wrote that

The whole apple crop was so devoted to the manufacture of cider that in the days of temperance reform, at the beginning of this century, temperance zealots cut down whole orchards of full-bearing trees, not conceiving any adequate use of the fruit for any purpose save cider-making.

It’s interesting to note that most reports of orchards being ripped out by Temperance farmers are written by those who often “heard” that it happened. Or, as in the case of the anonymous farmer who wrote “What Shall I Do With My Apples?”, it may have been a Temperance writer posing as a farmer. There is evidence suggesting that many stories may have been exaggerated or invented. It certainly was not a requirement. As one Temperance writer noted that he supposed some farmers may have pulled out their orchards in support of the cause, “such an act of destruction was found not to be demanded.”(4)

At the same time as some farmers may or may not have been ripping out their orchards, others did nothing at all. For example, the Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the Year 1852 noted that, “Some years ago, orchards were suffered, and even encouraged, to run down, from a strange philanthropy, lest the juice of the apple would somehow find its way into alcohol.”

Still, some saw a more measured approach. One author lamented that

We are not of those who approve of that zeal which a few years ago demolished some of the finest apple orchards in the interior. It is our opinion that the zeal which destroyed the apple orchards is not a zeal according to knowledge. And we much regret the little attention that has been paid to the cultivation of apple orchards throughout the whole interior of New England.(5)

Another Temperance writer didn’t see the need to abandon apples all together, asking

What shall be done with the fruit, especially the apple, so abundantly bestowed upon us? Shall it be destroyed beyond its domestic use? Or shall it be left to perish on the ground?…Some felt that they were called, in the providence of God, at once to root out their superabundant orchards, and devote the soil to grass and grain, for the support of man and beast. And there is good reason to suppose that in the great cider districts of the country, man’s appetite for this corrosive beverage had led many to err in this wide appropriation of beautiful fields.(6)

Finally, another proclaimed, “It is high time that the valuable fruit of the orchard was put to some better purpose than making men drunkards.”(7)

So what were those better purposes?

One suggestions was to use apples as an inexpensive fodder for animals. It was noted that apples were, “valuable for feeding stock” including, “horses, sheep, and cows; also for hogs…”(8) Not only were apples a cheap source of fodder, it was suggested they were a better long-term investment since apple-fed hogs, made twice the money cider would. (One farmer reported making a $600 return using the same amount of apples he got only $300 with for cider.(9) Another benefit was cider apples used as fodder required almost no change in the orchard, since “both sour and sweet apples as food for hogs, cattle and horses, may be well used to almost any extent: they are much more valuable to be thus used than to be made into cider…”(10)

Apples could be fodder, but it dawned on many that they could be food too.

The farmers throughout the country have not, as has been said, “in their fanatical zeal cut down their orchards; on the contrary they have been increasing them, not however, as I trust, to furnish cider to be drank, but to furnish fruit to be eaten, which recent experience has shown to be most nutricious [sic]…”(11)

As Americans increased their orchards, they began to adopt the idea that, “”…the principle use that we would make at present of apples in the country would be for every day fruit to be used in families.(12)

temperance new hampshire sentinel, published as new-hampshire sentinel. (keene, new hampshire) • 03-24-1836 • page [3]

Some orchards were not destroyed, but planted, “fully competent to temperance.”  New Hampshire Sentinel (Keene, New Hampshire), March 24, 1836, 3.

Apples as food was not entirely new to Americans. That eating apples could be the primary use was. But, it was suggested, even if Americans weren’t ready to consume them, they would make an excellent export, as, “People of the tropics love apples. Great for cooking and baking. Vinegar.” (13)

Apart from the moral arguments, Temperance writers also made economic arguments in support of transitioning orchards away from cider apples. One writer made the dubiously positive claim that, “engrafting and budding will change the character of an orchard, and more than compensate for the time and amount lost, producing the change – in ten years”(14)

In selling the idea that apples were for eating and not drinking, Temperance had found an answer to the orchard problem. They shared it with everyone, saying, “mirabile dictu! Grapes and apples were made for food. Laugh not, gentle reader, at this grave annunciation. It is really the great discovery of the nineteenth century…”(15).  And that “great discovery” encouraged farmers to plant, “A neat orchard of well selected fruit, for domestic use, cookery, and barn feed, is an invaluable part of a farm,” since “for any thing else, it is a nuisance.”(16)

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Another great discovery under an apple tree. Source

 

Next Time: What was the “Cider Question” and why was it so contentious?

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1. Journal of the American Temperance Union I, no. 3 (March 1837), 41.

2. The Extra Globe 4, no. 5 (April 26, 1838), 71.

3. In some stories, Prohibitionists also cut down orchards. For examples, see the following sites: http://www.farmdistiller.org/northwest-apples; /https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2014/02/15/hard-cider-comeback/5488087 ; https://www.threeriversparks.org/index.php/blog/hard-cider-story-war-immigration-and-prohibition; https://grow.cals.wisc.edu/departments/features/craft-ciders-comeback; http://www.newenglandhistoricalsociety.com/nine-apple-cider-traditions-no-longer-us/ .

4. “Second Annual Report for 1838,” Permanent Temperance Documents (New York: American Temperance Union, 1838), 48.

5. Farmer’s Monthly Visitor III, no. 5 (May 31, 1841), 68.

6. “Second Annual Report for 1838,” Permanent Temperance Documents (New York: American Temperance Union, 1838), 48.

7. Journal of the American Temperance Union I, no. 9 (September 1837), 138.

8. Journal of the American Temperance Union I, no. 3 (March 1837), 41.

9. Journal of the American Temperance Union I, no. 10 (October 1837), 151.

10. Farmer’s Monthly Visitor III, no. 5 (May 31, 1841), 68.

11. Journal of the American Temperance Union V, No. 8 (August 1840), 115.

12. Farmer’s Monthly Visitor III, no. 5 (May 31, 1841), 68.

13. Farmer’s Monthly Visitor III, no. 5 (May 31, 1841), 68.

14. Journal of the American Temperance Union I, no. 3 (March 1837), 41.

15. Mirable Dictu! translates as “wonderful to relate!” Journal of the American Temperance Union V, no. 10 (October 1840), 154.

16. Journal of the American Temperance Union I, no. 9 (September 1837), 138.

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Intemperate Temperance Cuts Down Cider

This is the next installment in our continuing series, “Did Prohibition Prohibit Cider?”

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Though Temperance originally advocated moderation, after the 1830s it fought for total abstinence (from alcohol consumption, that is). As Temperance changed, cider went from being a temperance drink, to a contributing cause, and finally to being the cause of alcohol abuse in America.

Temperance grew more potent because Americans at the beginning of the nineteenth century were a drunken, hot mess. Prior to the Revolutionary War Americans generally drank in a couple of ways – daily dram drinking (small tipples throughout the day, not with the intention to get drunk) and occasional social binging (essentially inebriation parties). The Revolution unleashed a degree of freedom completely unknown before, and with it came excessive drinking. Some people were anxious and uncertain about this new-found freedom and sought refuge in alcohol, while others saw drinking to intoxication (whether alone or not) as an expression of personal liberty. Whether it was from anxiety or freedom, studies suggest that more alcohol was consumed per person between 1790 and 1830 then at any other time in American history. (1)

As we saw last time, Cider was originally tolerated as a Temperance drink. Temperance advocates focused on hard liquor instead. Up through the 1820s if Temperancers viewed cider as a problem it was because it could be distilled into apple brandy. Some Temperance-supporting farmers worried that their apple orchards were the root of this evil. (2) For example, one “farmer” entitled his 1827 op-ed, “What Shall I Do With My Apples?” and continued

Is the question now rising in the mind of many a farmer, who is, or would appear, the friend of temperance. If he gathers his apples, of course he must make them into cider; and if he makes them into cider, of course he must sell it; and if he is to sell it, of course he must sell it to the distiller, or procure it distilled and then sell the brandy; and if the brandy is sold, it must be drank; and in this way every barrel will make and circulate liquid fire enough to ruin a soul, if not to destroy a life.

In 1829, a Connecticut farmer was quoted as saying he worried about having an orchard, “because the apples may be ground into cider, the cider may be distilled into spirituous liquor, and liquor, if drunken, will make a man drunk.” (3)

In the 1820s, Temperance organizations were established and spread across the nation. By the 1830s, these organizations hardened their view of softer alcoholic drinks. In 1869 one Temperance supporter explained this change, saying

In the infancy of the temperance reform, say from 1826 to 1832, a pledge, including spirituous or distilled liquors, was the only pledge in force, so that a man could be an active member of a temperance society and yet use and dispense in his household, wine, beer, or cider. A few years of experience convinced the earnest friends of temperance, that these drinks were constantly manufacturing new drunkards, and were also carrying back to their cups the most of those over whose reformation they had rejoiced. Hence the adoption of the total abstinence pledge, embracing the fermented as well as the distilled liquors.

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Artistic rendering of a Temperance pledge. Detail from the Sons of Temperance, c. 1845. Wikimedia.

From then on the Temperance view was that cider, not apple brandy, made drunkards. In 1836 the American Temperance Society said that, “Cider, strong beer, and wine are… the foundation of intemperate drinking.” Physician Samuel Bayard Woodward wrote in 1838 that, “Even cider, although in many instances it may be taken without danger, will induce, in many others, a love of something stronger, and, as the natural tendency is to desire an increase of strength, it will increase the danger of a relapse.” In 1839 the American Temperance Union wrote that, “Wine and cider are great and mighty hindrances to the overthrow of intemperance.”

The 1838 Temperance Map illustrated these views.

The map shows the Lands of Inebriation and Self-Denial. The map is an allegory of one’s descent into drunkenness and the (one and only?) route to salvation. The Ocean of Animal Appetites leads you to Inebriation. Inebriation consists of the territories of Indulgence, False Security, False Pleasure, False Comfort, False Hope, Total Indifference, and Ruin. The entry into the “Land of Inebriation” – a horrible place full of nasty pleasures and self-inflicted pains – was “Cider Inlet.”

Cider Inlet

Detail from upper left of the map.

From the 1830s onward, cider was portrayed as the “gateway” drink to harder stuff. During that time, Temperance worked to prevent alcohol addiction by working to prevent cider consumption.

Next Time: Did intemperate Temperance cut down orchards?

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1. See W.J. Rorabaugh, The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), Chapters 2 and 5.

2. It is often difficult to tell if a temperance article was authored by a farmer or by a Temperancer posing as a farmer to use “peer” pressure.

3. Weekly Eastern Argus, published as Eastern Argus. (Portland, Maine) • 07-14-1829, Page 3.

 

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